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Classification, origin and description
Typology: Perennials, Rhizomatous
Propagation: division, seed
Etymology: on the interpretation of the name Anemone (in which Greek is present anemos, wind, and Latin soul, breath, air, but also breath of life, soul) not everyone agrees. Pliny writes: the flower does not open except when the wind blows. Theocritus: it is called this because it is a flower that falls immediately: in fact, it is deciduous and easily spoils. Others said that the term refers to the habitat, that is to the woods exposed to the wind, populated by these flowers (Ippolito Pizzetti - Encyclopedia of Flowers and Gardens - Garzanti).
The genus includes almost a hundred species, some are present in Italy in a spontaneous state.
Paws of Coronary anemone of Caen (website photo)
Coronary anemone by Caen (photo www.bloomingbusiness.info)
Anemone hortensis (photo Sebastien Bedani)
Anemone narcissiflora (photo Σ64)
How it is grown
Arrange wild rhizomes or horticultural varieties horizontally, in autumn, in meadows or near trees or shrubs. The important thing is not to use fresh manure and to fertilize very little. The vegetable varieties of A. coronaria are easy to grow and can also come in pots. Other information is reported in the individual species.
Species and varieties
Spring flowering anemones
- Nemorous anemone L .: species native to Europe and East Asia; in Italy it is present in the woods of the North and Center. 10-12 cm high. It has a brown, underground, branched gray rhizome. The stem is simple and slender. Under the flower develops a collar of 3-5 etched-toothed leaves, faintly pubescent. The flowers are inclined, sometimes upright, with white petals, or flesh-colored, violet or bluish, often red externally. It is a very variable species. It multiplies by division every 2 or 3 years, from June-July to October or February. Suitable for fresh and shady groves. Plants should be spaced 10-15 cm apart from each other.
- Anemone ranuncoloides L .: species native to Europe, the Caucasus and Siberia. 15-20 cm high. The rhizome is brown, the basal leaves are equipped with long petioles, divided into 2-3 segments. The leaves of the stem are typed, very jagged. The flowers are 1 or 2, with a long peduncle, yellow, sometimes semi-double. The whole plant is almost hairless. Cultivation is similar to that of A. nemorosa.
- Coronary anemone L.:species widespread in the Mediterranean basin and Minor Asia. The rhizome is called a paw. The leaves are all radical, with petiole, palmatosette, with more or less divided lobes, bright green. The stem is generally pubescent; on this stem, at a certain distance below the flower, a collar develops consisting of 2 or 3 green leaves, deeply divided at the top. The flower is terminal, cup-shaped, generally composed of 6 or 8 oval-rounded segments, regular, brightly colored, sometimes with spots or streaks. These petals surround a circle of very numerous stamens of varying color, velvety and shiny; the stamens in turn surround a kind of round or conical flower head, formed by the agglomeration of pistils. It is a long-grown plant, both in gardens and as a cut flower. In the nineteenth century it underwent a long selection process to obtain more vibrantly colored, more durable, larger and more robust flowers. Today the simple varieties are more appreciated, among which the favorite is that of Caen which is generally sold in a mixture.
Cultivation of the. coronary: The plantation of the legs of a. c. it is done in autumn (mid-September-mid-October) or at the end of winter (January-March). The first solution is to be preferred because more vigorous plants and better flowering are obtained. In this case, in the northern regions, they will be planted in sheltered places well exposed to the sun and covered with leaves. Flowering will take place from April to June (more delayed due to the legs planted in spring). Double varieties must be planted already in early September, are less rustic and bloom later. Sometimes, instead of extracting the legs from the ground, after ripening, they can be left at home and, in a particularly favorable autumn, humid and full of rains, a second flowering can take place in September-October. The legs should be placed 20-25 cm moon on the other, in soft soil, with the eyes facing upwards and should be covered with a layer of 5 cm of earth.
Once the vegetative period is over, when the leaves have turned yellow and dried, the legs are removed from the ground, dried in the air, and put away. The legs are preserved even more than a year.
Multiplication can be done by division of the legs at the moment of planting, breaking them up and planting each branch provided with an eye; sowing or in the spring or in June-July or later still. It is sown in pots, in bowls or in a seedling, in light soil. They generally bloom only after 2 years and reach maturity only after 3 years.
They degenerate very easily if grown in the same soil for a long time; therefore it is advisable to change them frequently. The flowers can also be cut in bud and put in pots, where they last a long time.
- Anemone hortensis L .: native species of the Mediterranean basin, it is present in all our Peninsula. It is about 30-40 cm high. The type carries light purple or pinkish flowers, or even white. It prefers positions sheltered by trees, light soils with the addition of leaf earth. The legs must be removed from the ground and divided every 2 or 3 years.
Summer-autumn flowering anemones
- Anemone japonica Lem .: species native to central and western China. 1-1.20 m high. The rhizomes are elongated and underground. The leaves are 3 times pinnate seven. The flowers are numerous, red or carmine inside, a little paler outside which is velvety, about 6-8 cm wide; the chalice carries 4 colored sepals; the corolla is formed by 2 or 3 series of petals equally extended and unequal; the stamens and anthers are golden yellow. It must be grown in light soil, better in partial shade than in the sun, especially in central and southern Italy. It multiplies by division of the rhizomes in late autumn and late winter-early spring.To prevent the tracing roots from extending, it is better to grow it in underground baseless baskets.
- Anemone narcissiflora L .: indigenous species of the Alps and central-northern Apennines. The plant is hairy, 40-60 cm high. The radical leaves are equipped with long, erect, palmatosette petioles, with 3-5 lobes carved in lanceolate, linear segments. The collar has multi-leaf leaves welded to the base. The flowers are from 3 to 8, arranged in an umbrella, the corolla has a diameter of almost 2 cm. It multiplies by seed or division, spacing the plants by about 20-25 cm. The soil must be well drained. The ideal location is partial shade.
- There are also several hybrid varieties, obtained by crossing different oriental species since the mid-nineteenth century.
Diseases, pests and adversities
They are resistant plants that do not present particular problems of diseases and pests.