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Fruit trees: Apricot

Fruit trees: Apricot



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Generality

The origin of the apricot tree - Prunus armeniaca L. (= Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.) - is threefold: Chinese, Central Asian, Iranian -caucasian, all areas where the species is widespread. In Italy it is found mainly in the southern regions.
It belongs to the Rosaceae family, subfamily of the Prunoideae, genus Prunus. Related species include the Prunus brigantiaca Vill., Found in the French Alps, the Prunus ansu Kamar, cultivated in the wetlands of Japan and eastern China and the Prunus mume Sieb. and Zucc. (Japanese apricot).
Biology: it has early flowering and is therefore more prone to damage from the return of frosts in the spring period. The cvs used are self-compatible (in any case almost only one is used), while cvs of US origin are self-incompatible; pollination is entomophilic even if there also appears to be cleistogamy in the self-compatible, however it is not possible to produce without pollinators. Pedoclimatic limits: needs 250-1200 UF, requirement in cold which, if not satisfied, leads to flower anomalies and high drop of buds; the main limiting factor is excess moisture in the soil and air, it is also sensitive to radical suffocation. He fears the frosts of return and therefore he has moved to southern Italy.

Apricot Fruits - Prunus armeniaca L. (photo website)

Apricot leaves - Prunus armeniaca L. (photo website)

Apricot tree in bloom - Prunus armeniaca L. (photo website)

Varieties and rootstocks

For the choice of cvs, the Variety orientation lists - MiPAF finalized project are to be observed.
Remember: Ninfa, good everywhere, Bella dImola, Vitillo, also valid everywhere, Giulia, San Castrese, the most important, Glodrich, Portici, also valid, Pisana, Boccuccia spinosa and B. smooth, Dulcinea. In the Italian panorama, Cafona and Monaco are also to be remembered.
For rootstocks there are apricot and plum trees, similar species:
- Frank apricot
- Seed Myrobalan (P. cerasifera)
- Sleeve GF 1236
- Myrobalan 29C
- Mr. S. 2/5
- Montclar (P.persica) sensitive to nematodes
- Ishtara (P. cerasifera x P. persica).
Propagation: frank rootstocks and new cvs are obtained by seed; the graft is widespread but there is often disaffinity, except with the plum tree; because of the tannin the cutting does not take root well; finally, micropropagation is used for rootstocks.

Cultivation techniques

It adapts to many environments thanks to cv / rootstock combinations. The widespread training forms are the three-branched vase (sixth 5 x 3-4 m), the semi-free 4-5-branch vase (sixth 4.5 x 3 m), delayed vase, and spindle (sixth 4.5 x 2 m) for high density plants, however the species prefers the volume, not the flattened shape.
Irrigation, often absent, is desirable in the amount of 2000m3 / ha in May-September. For the fertilization it is to be remembered that it is a plant that requires a lot of N, which however should not be given in abundance since it would produce a lot of wood and weak, therefore it is distributed in 4-5 times so that the plant distributes it balanced. Main elements: N (100 kg), K (170 kg per 10 t of apricots produced), Ca, Bo, P (40 kg), in production.
As with other species, apricot pruning is based on the fruiting habitat (deciding whether to produce on darts, mixed branches, anticipated branches) and also on the vegetative habitat accotono or mesotono. It is a stone fruit therefore it has flower buds on the branches of the year number which must be balanced after the differentiation. It should not be forgotten that the thinning operation must be carried out at the hardening stage of the core; after 20-30 days no results are obtained.

Productions

The harvest, being modest and delicate fruits, is done by hand with not high work yields (about 20-25 kg / h useful work with palmette training and applying palletization; in the pot the yields are lower) . The yield is obviously higher if mechanical: in this case, the damaged fruits must be destined for the preparation of juices and jams. An important feature is the compact pulp for the syrup, while for the transformation into liquid the juice must be clear.
The productions per hectare are in relation to the planting density and the chosen form of breeding; normally a production of 180-220 q.li/ha is considered normal.
Conservation for a stone fruit is not possible.

Adversity

The main disease is Sharka (Plant Pot Virus), then among the cryptogams there are jewels (Monilia laxa and fructigena), powdery mildew (Podosphaera oxycanthae) and among the bacteriosis Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium and Xantomonas.


Video: Grafting Fruit Trees. Summer Budding of Plums, Peaches, Apricots, Kiwis and other fruit trees (August 2022).