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Systematic classification and distribution
Family: penduline tit
Species: R. pendulinus Linnaeus, 1758
Bird present in Asia up to India, Mongolia, China and Japan. In Europe it is present in the north and south. In Italy there is a subspecies Remiz pendulinus pendulinus.
4 subspecies are known:
- Remiz pendulinus caspius (Peltzam, 1870)
- Remiz pendulinus jaxarticus (Severtsov, 1873)
- Remiz pendulinus menzbieri (Zarudny, 1913)
- Remiz pendulinus pendulinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
European Pendulum - Remiz pendulinus (photo www.birds-of-denmark.dk)
European Pendulum - Remiz pendulinus (photo www.hlasek.com)
European Pendulum - Remiz pendulinus (photo © Henry E. Dresser)
Length: 11-12 cm
Wingspan: 16-18 cm
The adult male has a reddish tawny back and the other upper parts are brown and black. The head is light gray with an evident black mask that surrounds the eyes and comes thin on the forehead. The lower parts are faded fawn - off-white and the chest has fawn spots and the throat is off-white. The beak is gray and the legs are black. Adult females are similar to males, but lack tawny spots on the chest and the gray of the head is slightly darker. The young resemble the females in part, however, having a blackish beak and a completely brown head without any black mask.
It owes its name to the characteristic pendulum shape of its nest. The nest is suspended and is made up of vegetable and animal fibers intertwined with filaments of grass, the hair of willow and poplar seeds, sheep's wool and reed filaments. It has dimensions of 18/20 cm in height and 13/14 cm in width. The walls are 3 cm thick. All with a weight of gr.75 / 110. It is generally placed on vertical branches of willow, poplar, alder and birch. Or hung on twigs or in reeds in a humid environment, generally on the banks of rivers or brackish waters, wooded banks near marshes. In less than 18 days it is built by the male and finished by the female, in the same way as the weavers of the ploceidae genus. The construction begins with the interweaving of long filaments which determines the formation of a ring of 23 cm in diameter, a fundamental reinforcement for the construction of the walls. Then built the base the pendulum finishes the shape of the nest more and more resembling a pear. By raising the front wall, it finishes the work by reducing the tubular entry which protruding outside has dimensions of cm. 4 x 6. The female finishes everything with a lot of fluff. The curiosity found by ornithologists is the way to build the nest that has the pendulum of Lake Neusield in Austria on the border with Hungary in addition to that described. In fact in this area the nest is composed in the same way only that instead of being hung it is anchored horizontally between the rods. (Source www.ornitocultura.com)